The Himalayan wolf is probably the oldest and rarest species of wolves in the world

The Himalayan wolf is on the critically endangered list because they are so rare. Their existence and plight have become publicized by the efforts of an international research team led by Madhu Chetri, a graduate student at the Hedmark University of Applied Sciences in Norway. He has studied the wolf in the largest protected area of Nepal.

The Himalayan wolf looks quite a bit different then its European cousins. They are smaller in size, have a longer muzzle and shorter, stumpy legs. They are also marked differently with white around their throat, chest and belly and the inner parts of their legs. They also have a wooly coat.

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A pair of Himalayan wolves in their natural habitat. Credit: Madhu Chetri; CC-BY 4.0

To me they look more like our modern Husky breeds, especially the Malamute and Siberian Husky. Siberian Huskies have been known to have an occasional wooly coat.

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The researches feel that the Himalayan wolf is a separate branch of the wolf-dog family tree, making it especially rare.

As is the case with most wolves, the local farmers, ranchers and livestock owners hunted and killed as many wolves as they could, believing that they are a threat to their domestic livestock.

Hopefully, the researchers will be able to save this rare and unusual member of the wolf family.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160425112649.htm

 

New discovery may help cure dogs and humans with heart disease

Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and congestive heart failure in older dogs is age related and often affects small dogs. MMVD is the most common cardiac disease in dogs. Once a dog has congestive heart failure they are only expected to live between one and nine months.

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Researchers at the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University have discovered biomarkers in the extracellular vesicles of dogs with MMVD in the form of microRNA (miRNA) which circulate in the blood and urine. What is exciting is that this is the first biomarker based on extracellular vesicles in a veterinary disease.

MMVD is similar to mitral valve prolapse in humans, so this finding can eventually benefit humans with heart disease. While further research is needed, this is a wonderful finding that has potential to help monitor the progression of the disease as well as lead the way to developing treatment for both humans and dogs.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170714140437.htm

http://www.acvim.org/Portals/0/PDF/Animal%20Owner%20Fact%20Sheets/Cardiology/Cardio%20Myxomatous%20Mitral%20Valve%20Degeneration.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048944/

 

A new evaluation for guide dog puppies

Researchers in the University of Nottingham’s (England) School of Veterinary Medicine and Science have had success with a questionnaire designed to determine the suitability of puppies to be trained as Guide Dogs.

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Their evaluation tool successfully predicted the training outcomes in young dogs 5 – 12 months with an 84% accuracy. The questionnaire is called the “Puppy Training Supervisor Questionnaire”, or PTSQ.

The PTSQ evaluates the following:

  • Adaptability
  • Body sensitivity
  • Distractibility
  • Excitability
  • General anxiety
  • Trainability
  • Stair anxiety

If this method proves to be accurate over time, it might be useful to help evaluate other types of working dogs. It is encouraging that scientists continue to try and find ways to predict the working ability of dogs. This saves organizations time and money spent on dogs that do not pass the training programs and lets them focus on those that have a better chance of passing.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170614142551.htm

 

 

 

Where did our domestic cats come from?

Paleogeneticist Claudio Ottoni and his colleagues from KU Leuven (University of Leuven) and the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences did a study to determine the ancestor of the modern domestic cat. There are five subspecies of the wildcat Felis silvestris that are known today, but all skeletal remains look the same.

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Therefore, Ottoni studied the DNA from bones, teeth, skin, and hair from cats found at archaeological sites in the Near East, Africa and Europe. The cat remains were from 100 to 9000 years old.

What they discovered was that all domestic cats descended from the African wildcat Felis silvestris lybica, found in North Africa and the Near East. What Ottoni could not determine is if the cats from Egypt were a separate group of cats or if they descended from the African wildcat.

What is interesting is that most if not all the ancient cats were striped. Few if any had spots or blotches such as today’s tortoise shell or “tortie” cat. Spotted cats did not show up until the Middle Ages. Since cats were taken on ships to control the rodents, they spread across the world and remains have been found at Viking sites near the Baltic sea.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170619125825.htm

A new study about co-sleeping with your pets

A recent study examined the practice of sharing a bedroom or bed with a dog. While the authors suggest that more research is needed, they compared sleeping with a dog to the practice of sharing a bed or bedroom with a child.

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The current concern about co-sleeping with a child focuses on the child suffering from poor health, impaired functioning, developing problematic behavior and sexual dysfunction. However, there is not enough evidence to determine if there are negative effects of co-sleeping with dogs or other pets.

According to the study, the benefit of co-sleeping with both pets and children are saving resources, keeping warm, and feeling safe. It is a practice that has been going on for many years.

When it comes to sharing a bedroom with a dog, as an animal behavior consultant, I recommend letting a puppy sleep in a crate in the bedroom to help the puppy bond with the family and feel safer in a new environment. After the dog is trained and under control, it can be allowed to sleep on the bed with a family member. However, if the dog is not trained it can become possessive of the bed or other furniture to the point of becoming aggressive if a family member wants to move the dog. Whether it is good or not depends on many factors, including the dog’s temperament and the owners ability to train and control the dog.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170622104001.htm

 

 

 

It may be possible in the future, for humans to regenerate a new heart

As futuristic as it sounds, a recent study of the sea anemone shows that if you cut the anemone into multiple parts, each part will regenerate into a new animal. Scientists learned that if they can discover how to make the genes talk to each other, they may discover how to treat heart conditions and stimulate regenerative healing in humans.

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The genes in vertebrates and flies have what is referred to as lockdown loops. That means that once the genes are active, they tell each other to stay where they are. By learning how to unlock the genes or make them talk to each other, scientists hope to be able to imitate the sea anemone’s ability to regenerate.

Of course, if they succeed in doing this, all animals will benefit, including our beloved pets.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170626190625.htm

A new species of parrot discovered in Mexico

Dr. Miguel A. Gómez Garza found a new species of parrot in 2014. This parrot has a distinctive shape, color, call and behavior. Dr. Garza found the parrot in a remote part of Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. It is referred to as the “blue winged” parrot.

Its call is a loud, sharp, short, repetitive and monotonous one. It lives in small flocks of a dozen or less and the offspring tend to stay together in groups.

Like other parrots, its diet consists of fruits, flowers, seeds and leaves, the same as other parrots. It is exciting to find a new species and that there are new species of animals and plants that we have yet to discover.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170627073607.htm

Rat lungworm can cause meningitis in humans and animals

Rat lungworm, a parasitic nematode, has been found in five Florida counties so far. The lungworm depends on rat and snail hosts to complete its life-cycle. To become infected, both humans and animals must eat the snails or infected frogs or crustaceans.

Although the fatality rate in infected humans is low, the parasite can cause eosinophilic meningitis if it dies in a person’s brain which can lead to a coma and/or death.

Adults who become infected suffer from headaches, stiff neck, fever, vomiting, nausea, and paralysis. Children suffer from nausea, vomiting and fever.

Animals that are infected can get meningitis, weakness in their limbs or even paralysis, neck pain and central nervous system problems.

Prevention involves washing produce since snails can be very small. Children should be taught not to handle or eat snails. If they handle a snail they must wash their hands. To prevent infection in pets, check their living area including watering troughs or dishes, and watch to make sure that your animals do not eat snails.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170628131625.htm

A new device to help train explosives detection dogs

We depend upon bomb dogs to help protect us from terrorist attacks. Training them can be tricky. To help trainers and handlers, researchers have developed a real-time vapor analysis device called a Vapor Analysis Mass Spectrometer to help trainers and handlers understand what a dog detects when searching for explosive materials. When training a dog for any kind of scent work, it is important to hide items that are not scented as well as items with the target scent on them. Bomb dog trainers and handlers found that in some cases the dogs were indicating scent on the non-scented items. What the Vapor Analysis Mass Spectrometer showed in these cases that the dogs were correct because the non-scented items had picked up scent that drifted from the scented items.

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By using the Vapor Analysis Mass Spectrometer during training, handlers and trainers will better be able to determine how accurate the dogs are in detecting explosive material.

The lesson from this research applies to all types of scent work with dogs. It shows us that items handlers think are not contaminated may be contaminated. Ultimately, it means that whoever handles scented items and non-scented items for training must take extra precautions to ensure that non-scented items are not contaminated. This can be especially tricky when training dogs in search and rescue where the handler has no control over the elements (weather, etc.) that can cause scent to drift.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170628131349.htm

Why do dogs chase their tail?

Seeing a dog chase his tail can be very funny. But why do they do it? There are a couple of theories, although until dogs can talk and tell us, we will never know for sure.

Puppies most often are the ones who chase their tail. It is almost as if they see it for the first time realize it is there and decide it is a toy to be caught. If their tail is long enough, they may catch it, but if it is short they will whirl around until they are tired, never actually catching their tail. When a puppy realizes that the tail is theirs, or they cannot catch it, they will often give up the game. In some cases, they will chase the tail of other puppies. This can be a way for them to expend their energy.

smiling-riley

If a dog has never chased his tail and suddenly starts to and does not have a playful attitude, a trip to the veterinarian is in order. A dog may chase their tail due to skin problems, eye problems or neurological issues.

Some dogs chase their tail because the owners think it is funny and laugh. Dogs know when you are laughing at or with them, and yes, dog do laugh. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/canine-corner/200911/do-dogs-laugh

A happy response from an owner is a form of reward or encouragement for a dog and a dog will use what works to get attention from the owner. An example of this is a young Collie pup who was deaf and used to get underfoot. Family members would accidently step on her front paw. When this happened the person who stepped on the dog’s foot would bend down and fuss over the dog, rubbing her foot. After a while the dog learned to limp to get people to rub her foot, even though no one stepped on her.

It is possible that a dog will chase his tail because he is anxious. Physical exertion does relieve anxiety and chasing a tail may be one way a dog deals with anxiety. If this is a possibility the owner should look for other signs that the dog is anxious, such as trembling, panting, hiding, or looking generally upset. Owners are good at reading their dogs and can tell when the dog is happy or not.

Although it is not that common, some dogs suffer from a form of compulsive disorder which is really compulsive behavior http://www.petmd.com/dog/behavior/evr_dog_behavior_compulsive_disorder

and may chase their tail until they are exhausted. If this is the case the owner must consult a certified animal behavior consultant to help cure or control the problem. Left untreated the behavior can escalate and become a danger to the dog. To find a good behavior consultant go to: http://www.iaabc.org

The best thing a dog owner can do is to provide enough exercise for their dog so that they expend their energy in a healthy manner. Some dog owners have difficulty determining how much is enough. This depends on the type and breed of dog. Little dogs do not need as much room to run to satisfy their needs. The larger the dog the more room they need. Dogs that are bred to work typically need to cover a few miles in order to have enough exercise. The age and health of the dog is a factor as well. For a healthy dog, enough exercise is when they flop down and want to sleep. They may need this type of exercise a few times a day. Typically, the morning and evening are the times of day most dogs want to be active. With some planning and research, we can keep our dogs happy and healthy.