All dogs bite!

All dogs bite at one time or another. However, most people do not realize that there are different types of bites. Unfortunately, many dogs have lost their homes, lives or been restricted due to the misunderstanding and misinformation about dog bites.

Dogs used their mouths the same as we use our hands. Puppies mouth everything. Human human babies will put everything in their mouths similar to puppies. The mouth is a very sensitive part of the body, perhaps the most sensitive. The mouth can taste, feel texture, heat, cold, size and shape.

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The mouth and tongue are so sensitive that the smallest bump or lump in a person’s mouth often feels like a boulder or a cracked tooth feels like a canyon. We have to assume that dogs have the same or similar capabilities. However, dogs do not have the same capability to taste as humans do. They have about 1,706 taste buds compared to a human’s 9,000. A dog’s taste buds are located at the tip of their tongue. They can taste bitter, sweet, sour and salty. Their choice of what they eat depends more on their sense of smell than taste.

Dogs use their mouths to manipulate objects, carry objects, groom themselves and/or companions, to show affection, as a means of correcting another dog, as a way to get another animal or person away from them (distance increasing), and to vocalize. One of the most affectionate things a dog may do is nibble the object of their affection. This is a very gentle nibbling using the small front teeth.

Sometimes dogs will grab a person to try and lead them somewhere, such as a door if they have to go out. This is like a person taking another person by the hand to guide them.

Bites often happen in a few seconds. It may be difficult for an untrained person to analyze a bite because you must consider the dog’s body language and the circumstances that happened just before and after the bite. Dogs also can give mixed signals. For example, a dog can act aggressively and at the same time fearfully. The dog’s life experience including training will influence what and how they bite. However, below is a general explanation of dog bites.

Dog bites follow a progression if, as a puppy, the dog has been allowed to learn how to properly act socially with other dogs. An adult dog will first give a warning look, whether it is a puppy, another animal or person. If that does not work, next are warning growls or vocalizations. (Never correct a dog for growling, you will remove an important warning, forcing the dog to go directly to a bite.) If a puppy does not heed the body language and then the vocal warning of an older dog, the dog may give the puppy an open mouth correction. This is when the older dog will “hit” the puppy with his mouth open but does not bite.

The next level is the nip. In human terms, it would be equal to a pinch. It is typically done with the little front teeth. It is a corrective measure used to stop the unwanted behavior or to communicate the message to get away or back off.

If the nip does not work the next bite will be a full mouth bite but a quick release and often not bearing down hard. This type of bite may result in a bruise or small puncture. This is also a request to back off or get away. The dog is trying to increase the distance between himself and who he bit. It is also the type of bite that a fearful dog may employ. It could be a defensive or corrective bite.

If that does no work the next bite may have increased pressure resulting in a deeper puncture or larger bruise. It is also a distance increasing bite or a fear bite.

The aggressive bite that the enraged dog or the dog who is truly aggressive will use is a bite and hold or a bite, hold and shake. These are the bites that are dangerous where the dog typically intends to hurt.

A dog that has developed strong bite inhibition, may put his mouth on a person if he is in pain. Often that is a reflex and when the dog realizes that his mouth is on a person will either stop before making contact or not put any pressure in the bite. Other times a dog who is in pain may bite. This should not be held against the dog. Also, a dog that is enraged or upset about something may do what is called redirected aggression. This also a reflex where the dog will bite whatever is near him when he cannot get to the object of his anger.

The other situation where a dog will bite because of reflex is if the dog is engaged in a fight with another animal and a person tries to grab the dog to pull him away. The dog will bite not realizing that it is not the animal he is fighting but a person. This also should not be held against the dog. In these cases of reflex biting, the humans that are working with the dog should expect it and take precautions to avoid being bitten. The only breed of dog that has been bred not to bite a human when engaged in a fight are the bully breeds, such as Pitbull Terriers.

How likely a dog will bite depends on the breed (or mix) of the dog, the lines of the breed, how well the breeder and then the owner socialized the dog and the dog’s training. Some breeds of dog are less tolerant and quicker to bite than others.

Children are often bitten in the face because they are at face level with dogs. Children of all ages should be taught how to interact with dogs and carefully monitored always. A dog that bites a child due to a reflex action is rarely forgiven even though in most cases the dog is not an aggressive dog by nature.

It would do the dogs and dog owners a great service if the dog owners studied canine body language and learned to understand their dogs. Children should be taught how to interact with dogs. Studies have shown that children can recognize when a dog is angry but not when they are fearful.

There are two excellent resources that help the dog owner learn how to read dog body language.

  1. What is My Dog Saying? By Carol A. Byrnes, diamonsintheruff.com
  2. The Language of Dogs by Sarah Kalnajs bluedogtraining.com
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English Bulldog one of the unhealthiest breeds in the world

There is little hope that breeders can create a healthier English Bulldog from the existing gene pool. Years of breeding for specific physical traits has caused the English Bulldog to become one of the unhealthiest breeds in the world.

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One of the reasons for the health issues in this breed is that people in general are more concerned about the dog’s appearance rather than its health. Researchers have used DNA to study the breed and found that there is not enough genetic diversity within the breed to make the needed improvements. When this happens outcrossing the breed to introduce genetic diversity is often the answer.

To this end, many Swiss breeders have out-crossed the English Bulldog with the Olde English Bulldogge, which is an American breed, to improve the English Bulldog’s health. Unfortunately, many English Bulldog breeders do not approve of this and feel that the resulting out-cross is not a true English Bulldog.

The English Bulldog as a breed started around 1835 with about 68 individuals. Since that time the breed lost popularity a few times which further limited the gene pool. In recent years the surge in the breed’s popularity has further caused genetic problems in the breed.

It seems that the only hope for the English Bulldog is to out-cross them as the breeders in Switzerland have done. It would not take many generations to breed the results of the out-cross to resemble the original bulldog.

Anyone who is considering owning an English Bulldog should research the health issues and life-span of this breed before purchasing one. The health issues can result in costly veterinarian bills. It also goes without saying that a puppy should only be purchased from a reputable breeder to help minimize the potential for health issues. For a free copy of my brochure about how to select the right dog and breeder, email me at sbulanda@gmail.com with brochure in the subject line.

 

A Holiday Gift Giving Guide for Dog Owners

This article is contributed by Cindy Aldridge

It’s never easy to find the right gift for someone in your life. You want to give them something they’ll love, but with the holiday season already here, you don’t have a lot of time to wander the malls and hope inspiration strikes you.

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If you have a dog owner to buy for, it might be a good idea to find something both of them will love. Read on to find the right gifts for both dog and owner. You need to be careful, though. There are some gifts that can be unhealthy for the dog.

Dog Gifts To Never Buy

One common dog gift is a rawhide bone. Many people buy these for their pet dogs, which is a shame. As Dog.com shows, rawhide chews can break off and get swallowed, only to block the intestines as the dog tries to digest it. Some rawhide toys, such as those made outside the US, are also covered with a residue of dangerous chemicals that can sicken a dog.

Other classic dog toys you should avoid giving this year include:

  • Toys shaped like small animals since this teaches the dog to attack the real versions.
  • Dog mustaches, hats, or similar silly gifts.
  • Hard frisbees. (They make a special kind of disc just for dogs.)
  • Any cheaply made chew toys, as they tend to break apart.

What Dogs Love To Get

Then what should you buy for your friend’s cute furry friend? Dog treats are typically good, as almost every dog owner needs a box handy for training or treating their dog. But as Mashable shows, there are some unique dog gifts that can work even better.

  • Doggie cigars look like real cigars but they’re just a chew toy.
  • A pet sofa or bed gives the dog a comfortable place to rest.
  • For a safe stuffed animal the dog can enjoy, have one custom made that looks like the dog.
  • A “Pez” dog treat dispenser looks retro while giving the dog a fun place to store treats.
  • For active dogs, a hyper tennis ball launcher can finally tire them out.

Bored Panda has a great list of unusual gifts for the dog. One of these is the auto zip line. Dogs love car rides, but they can get annoyed as they bounce around the inside of the car. The zip line attaches near the roof and runs across seat. Once tethered to the line, the dog can stay active while staying in the back seat.

Gifts For Owners

Buying a gift for the dog can be fun, but don’t forget about its owner! Dog monitor cameras make a great holiday gift. Leaving a dog at home all day can make owners a bit sad, so being able to see that their pet is just fine can be invaluable.

Some other gifts for the dog lover in your life include:

  • A Paww Secret Agent leash that lets the owner easily attach it to a sign or parking meter.
  • Some black-and-white photo portraits of cute dogs.
  • Dognition, a series of games that helps humans understand how dogs view the world.
  • A GPS tracker for the dog, especially if it tends to get past the fence a lot.

Find The Right Holiday Gift

Buying gifts for others can be a hassle, but it helps when you know you got the right present. For dogs, skip the rawhide bones and go for beds, ball launchers, or auto zip lines. Just don’t forget about something for the owner or they might be jealous!

 

Herding dogs can suffer from a genetic mutation causing a reaction to certain drugs

Although it is rare, white footed herding breeds such as Border collies, Corgies and Australian shepherds can have a genetic mutation that makes them sensitive to ivermectin and several other drugs including some chemotherapy medicines.

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For example, a dog named Bristol who had the genetic mutation almost died as a result of the mutation. Bristol was barely responsive and suffering from seizures. It took months of treatment including a mechanical ventilator and rehabilitation to bring her back to normal health. Bristol had eaten the droppings of sheep that had been recently dewormed with ivermectin, which is what caused her health issue.

It is easy to determine if your dog has the genetic mutation by asking your veterinarian for a simple test to determine if your dog has the genetic mutation. The test involves using a small brush to swab the inside of your dog’s mouth. The swab is sent to a laboratory for the results.

This is an easy preventative way to protect your dog, especially if your dog is around barns, livestock or used for herding trials. All herding breeds should be tested to be safe. It would be a good idea to test all herding breeds whether they are white-footed or not. Rather be safe than sorry.

 

 

 

 

 

PTSD in dogs

Recently canine behaviorists and veterinarians have seen what appears to be a canine version of Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome in dogs (PTSD).

Some of the dogs are combat veterans and police dogs. However, it is possible that pet dogs who experience a traumatic event can also suffer from PTSD.

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Pet dogs who suffer from PTSD can include dogs that have been frightened by fireworks, are noise sensitive, or have been injured in some way. The symptoms usually vary from case to case. Some dogs will be over-responsive, showing extreme fear for example, while others change the way they interact with their owner/handler such as becoming aggressive or over clingy or timid.

Other symptoms can include attempting to escape certain environments or avoid those environments. In some cases, the dog in question who was a good working dog will suddenly fail to complete his tasks or shut down entirely.

Treatment for each case will vary. Sometimes a veterinarian will suggest an anti-anxiety medication to be used for the short term. This must be coupled with retraining, desensitizing to the environmental elements and situations that cause the problem and counter-conditioning to build the dog’s confidence. People who own or work with these dogs must understand that it takes time to work through the issues and that there is no magic pill to fix the problem.

Fortunately, there are certified canine behavior consultants who can help these dogs. There are also organizations dedicated to saving the dogs and finding suitable homes for them when necessary. One organization is Combat Canines: The DDoc Foundation.

It is important to keep in mind that rehabilitating these dogs takes time. No one knows for sure if they actually suffer from PTSD because the dogs cannot tell us. However, the symptoms strongly suggest that they do. Many of these dogs have served our country faithfully and deserve a second chance for a happy life.

Hypertension in dogs

Most people are familiar with hypertension in people also known as “high blood pressure” but how many of us know that about 10% of dogs have it too? The problem is that our dogs cannot tell us if they are not feeling well. Therefore, it is our responsibility to look for symptoms that could be a result of high blood pressure.

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There are two types of high blood pressure in dogs, primary and secondary. Humans are more likely to have primary high blood pressure, which is when there is no underlying cause.

Secondary high blood pressure is typically caused by a disease. Secondary high blood pressure is the most common one that affects dogs.

Unfortunately, the signs for high blood pressure can also be signs of other medical problems in your dog. For example, high blood pressure can affect the eyes, central nervous system, heart and kidneys.

Often dogs do not show early signs of high blood pressure, and sometimes the signs that we see are considered part of normal aging and could be overlooked.

Like humans, being obese is a cause of high blood pressure and is one thing we can control. Regular exercise and keeping your dog’s weight at a normal level can help prevent high blood pressure.

Because the symptoms can be related to other medical issues, if you notice any change in your dog’s behavior regardless of what age your dog is, a trip to the veterinarian is in order. In older dogs do not assume that behavior changes are due to old age.

Some of the changes to look for are excessive drinking. Sometimes a dog owner will not know if their dog is drinking more water so good way to tell is to see if the dog has to urinate more often and/or larger amounts.

Changes in the dog’s movement, how he walks, if he seems dizzy, or falls is another sign. The dog’s mental state, such as does he seem forgetful? Stand in a corner or seem to get lost?

Has the dog’s appetite changed? Is he less active? Does your dog pant excessively? Does he cough or seem short of breath? These are all symptoms that warrant an immediate visit to your veterinarian.

Sometimes changes happen gradually. It is a good idea if the dog is a senior to have your dog checked twice a year. Keep in mind that being a senior depends on the breed of dog. Some breeds can live to be 18 and some do not live past ten. Check with your veterinarian to determine what age your dog needs a twice a year checkup. The good news is that high blood pressure in dogs is treatable with medications.

Cats can catch canine influenza from dogs

A group of cats in a shelter in Northwest Indiana have tested positive for the canine influenza H3N2 virus. This was confirmed by Sandra Newbury the clinical assistant professor and also the director of the Shelter Medicine Program at the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine in collaboration with Kathy Toohey-Kurth, virology section head at the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory.

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Although cases have been reported in South Korea, only a single case showed up in the United States in 2015. The cats that are infected shared a shelter with dogs that were also infected.

Tests have shown that the virus can reproduce in cats and spread from cat to cat, as well as from dog to cat. This means that dogs and cats must be housed separate from each other in shelters.

Cats exhibit upper respiratory symptoms such as runny nose, congestion and general malaise, as well as lip smacking and excessive salivation. Fortunately, the symptoms do not last long and so far, have not caused death in cats.

Dogs that have the virus often develop a persistent cough, runny nose and fever, although some dogs show no symptoms and some can get very sick. Canine flu has caused death in dogs but most recover if taken to a veterinarian and given the proper care.

Although there is a flu shot for dogs, there is no shot for cats. So far the canine virus has not infected a large number of cats. However, if a potential cat owner goes to a shelter and adopts a cat or visits a shelter and already owns a cat, they should be cautious when handling cats by using hand sanitizer before and after handling each individual cat or dog.
If your dog or cat shows flu symptoms, a trip to the veterinarian is in order. However, be sure to tell the receptionist when making an appointment that you suspect that your dog or cat has the canine influenza virus so that they make take proper precautions.

Proper treatment, care and handling of pets who may have the canine influenza virus, will go a long way to preventing it from spreading. Be sure not to make contact with other pets until your veterinarian says the virus is no longer contagious.

Tick diseases in humans and pets

Tick season is here again in many parts of the country. Ticks can cause diseases in both dogs and humans as well as other pets. Most people do not realize that there are a number of diseases that are transmitted by ticks with some infections taking place in as little as three hours after being bitten.

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Many diseases transmitted by ticks can infect a variety of species of animals as well as humans. Although many pet owners use tick and flea prevention drugs, it is important to realize that while the tick may not bite the pet, the tick can travel from the pet to a human.

Therefore, if the pet owner lives in an area where there are ticks or their pet goes to a tick infested area, the pet should be checked thoroughly for ticks. One way to do this is to use a flea comb and comb the pet’s fur right to the skin but not digging into the skin.

Sometimes a pet owner can run their hands over the pet and feel a tick. This is very important if the pet sleeps on the owners bed, furniture of sits on the owner’s lap. Keep in mind that ticks are found in bushes, trees, grass, weeds, and in the soil. Check with your veterinarian to see what tick preventative medicine is best for your pet

Pets and humans (especially children) should be checked for ticks every time they go into a potentially tick infested area. Ticks are often most active in the spring and fall, but in certain areas of the country can be active year round.

Humans can use insect repellent when entering tick infested areas. Wearing long sleeves and putting pant legs inside socks can help prevent ticks from crawling up pant legs and arms. Hats can help to protect the head from ticks dropping from overhead vegetation. .

If the tick embeds it should be removed as quickly as possible. A product called a tick key is very useful in removing ticks from pets and humans.

If you do not have a tick key, remove a tick by using tweezers to grab the tick as close to the skin as possible, then pull up with a stead, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick since the head of the tick may break off. If it does try to remove the head with the tweezers. Do not touch the tick with your hands if possible. Dispose of it by dropping it in rubbing alcohol or wrap the tick on sticky tape and throw it away. Be sure to wash your hands after handling a tick.

It is a good idea to take a shower after working or playing in tick infested areas and washing your clothes. Ticks can hide in clothing and then crawl into the home. With a little diligence and care, you can protect yourself and your pets from tick diseases.

Ticks exist in all 50 states, with some having greater infestations than others. Here is a list of some of the tick diseases:

Anaplasmosis human, – is also known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Ticks get the organism when feeding on deer, elk or wild rodents. The symptoms are: fever, headache, muscle pain,malaise, chills, nausea and/or abdominal pain, cough, confusion and although rare, a rash. Dogs can get anaplasmosis as well as other animals. The symptoms in dogs are: joint pain, high fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures and neck pain.

Bartonellosis – Although it is thought to be carried by ticks, this disease at present, does not seem to be transmitted to humans through ticks. However, it is transmitted by cats through fleas. It causes what is commonly known as “cat scratch disease” and is most likely carried by feral cats. There is some evidence that it can be transmitted to humans by being bitten with an infected flea.

Hepatozoonosis – is often fatal in dogs. Dogs get it by eating an infected tick. The symptoms include: fever, weakness, muscle atrophy, generalized pain, reluctance to move, ocular discharge; and gradual deterioration of the body.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a serious, potentially fatal disease that is transmitted to humans by a tick. It is carried by the American dog tick, Rocky mountain wood tick, and the brown dog tick. Symptoms include fever, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting and muscle pain. A human can get a rash from the tick bite. It must be treated in the first few days or the disease can be fatal.

Dogs and other animals can get RMSF. The symptoms in dogs include: depression, lethargy, anorexia, blood in the urine, irregular heartbeat, discolored skin that often looks like a bruise, loss of coordination, swelling in the limbs, bleeding through the nose and stools, difficulty with blood clotting, swollen lymph nodes, pain in the eyes, inflammation or conjunctivitis.

Ehrlichiosis Affects both dogs, humans, and wild canids and is found worldwide and throughout the United States. It is transmitted by ticks including the brown dog tick and the Lone Star tick. What is important to realize is that this disease can live in a tick for up to five months, which means that a tick that has it in the fall can pass it along to a dog or human in the spring.

There are three phases of this disease. The acute phase develops in 1 – 3 weeks. The liver, lymph nodes and spleen are often enlarged. Humans get fever, depression, lethargy, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, joint pain and stiffness and bruises. Dogs can sometimes fight the infection and go into the subclinical phase. In this phase the dog may show slight anemia. This phase can last for years when the dog will eliminate the disease from its body or go into the chronic phase which can be mild or severe. The signs are weight loss, anemia, neurological signs, bleeding, the eyes can become inflamed, fluid builds up in the hind legs, and fever develops. Sometimes the disease will only show up when the dog becomes stressed. In some cases arthritis or kidney disease may develop.

Lymes Disease in humans is transmitted by deer ticks or the blacklegged ticks. Symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue and sometimes a rash. This disease can spread to joints, the nervous system and the heart.

Lymes disease in dogs Symptoms include: a stiff walk with an arched back, sensitivity to touch, difficulty breathing, fever, lack of appetite and depression, lymph nodes may be swollen, and although rare, heart abnormalities and neurologic issues.

Rat bite fever

Many people have rodents as pets and they can make wonderful pets for people who do not have room for a larger pet or cannot have a dog, cat or bird. However, although it is rare, rat bite fever can be transmitted by pet rodents, either through a bite or scratch. Rats, gerbils, mice, guinea pigs and ferrets are capable of transmitting rat bite fever. Rat bite fever is an old disease that has been recorded for over 2300 years.

Rat bite fever is caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis which is the most common cause. The symptoms include fever, pain in joints, nausea, rash and vomiting and can be fatal if not treated.

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Children, pet store workers, veterinary technicians, veterinarians and laboratory technicians are in the higher risk group since they handle rodents on a regular basis. People who frequently handle rodents can wear protective gloves to prevent being bitten.  Parents should monitor children who have rodents as pets and if they are bitten or scratched, notify your pediatrician.

Socializing a pet rodent is a precautionary measure that will reduce the chance of being bitten. Rodents can be trained using clicker training methods which will also help to reduce the chances of being bitten by teaching the rodent to come to you.

Always be careful not to frighten or startle a rodent. Avoid trying to handle a rodent that is sleeping. A tap on the cage or talking to the rodent before handling it can calm the rodent and allow the pet to be aware that it is going to be handled. Using common sense will help prevent being bitten and avoid rat bite fever. 

Keep in mind that rat bite fever can also be transmitted by wild rodents. If there are wild rodents in your area and they are trapped, use caution in removing them or handling predators that might have caught and killed a rodent.

 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/12/151223141151.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fplants_animals%2Fanimals+%28Animals+News+–+ScienceDaily%29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1797630/

Large carnivore attacks on humans

Studies have shown that at least half of the attacks on humans by brown bear, black bear, polar bear, puma, wolf and coyote are due to risks that humans take. Most are due to the fact that people do not understand how to act in areas where these animals live. This is not limited to North America, the studies have been conducted since 1955 in the United States, Canada, Sweden, Finland, Russia and Spain.

If you are going hiking, camping, hunting or visiting areas where these animals live do not go jogging at night, leave children unattended, approach a female with young, walk a dog unleashed.

Bears are attracted to food, so find out the safe ways to have food if you are camping. Local rangers can advise you what works in their area. Do not feed wild animals, this teaches them to approach humans.

Recently in certain parts of the United States and Canada, coyotes and wolves have interbred creating the coywolf.

These animals are typically bolder than wolves and no one is sure what the mix of wolf or coyote they are, if they are more of one or the other. If they are in the area where you live, you must take precautions if you have pets, especially outdoor cats, since they prey on small dogs and cats. If you live in a rural area where there is a large population of feral cats you can expect that coyotes and coywolves are in the area.

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This makes it important to understand how to protect yourself, pets and family from these animals. Often if an animal attacks a human, the animal must be destroyed, even if the attack was defensive and not aggressive. By being careful and avoiding confrontation, you are protecting yourself and saving the life of the animal.

www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160204111357.htm